Toby Lerner (founder of Miami City Ballet) is wife of Edmund Ansin (Sunbeam Broadcasting)
Among the ballets of George Balanchine (8 total), you can see Square Dance and Ballet Imperial, rare in France. Besides Theme and Variations, The Four Temperaments / Four Temperaments, Symphony in Three Movements considered "abstract" and very representative of language Balanchine ("neoclassical" inventive, melted in music), a rare piece, more narrative and dramatic, like La Valse, and two playful entertainment: Tarantella (not two) and Western Symphony, evoking the world of the Wild West.
Edward Villella - one of the favorite performers of Jerome Robbins - has chosen two works that explore the intimate journey of being in love: Afternoon of a Faun if revisits the Fauna of Nijinsky, in In the Night, the choreographer is guided by the music of Chopin to translate, with subtlety, the complexities of the soul.
American dance has been largely open to the mixture of genres, and Twyla Tharp is particularly adept at juxtaposing classical and jazz sneakers and spikes in the exhilarating In The Upper Room, as she knows charm you with songs the famous crooner ", in the elegant Nine Sinatra Songs.
In the recent Promethean Fire, Paul Taylor, a historical figure and still living in "modern dance", expressed with seriousness and lyricism (the music of Bach), the collective pain felt after the events of 11 September.
As for the young Brit Christopher Wheeldon, he wrote with a duo of Liturgy dance enthusiast.
Ballet is a dramatic genre whose action is represented by pantomime and dancing. Its origins date back to the Italian Renaissance (fifteenth century). Originally developed at the court of Italy, ballet has received acclaim in France, then in Russia, as a dance show.
In the seventeenth century, major development has been the ballet at the court of Louis XIV explains the origin of most of the French vocabulary of dance.
Etymologically, the word comes from the Italian ballo (dance) whose diminutive balletto gave the word "ballet".
At various times, countries and currents, the choreography may include music, singing, text, backgrounds, and even machinery.
Like opera, it can be organized in two ways:
either by a succession of "numbers" or "entries"
The structure of the ballet "entry" is the oldest: dances strung together like so many separate episodes.
Comedy Ballet of the Queen, choreographed by Balthasar de Beaujoyeux is assembled and presented in 1581 in Italy the same year he appeared or Ballarino, a treatise on dance technique to the court by Fabritio Caroso. Although the comic Queen Ballet is not the first ballet of the genre, its representation coincided with the publication of the treaty established in Italy, so central to the development of ballet technique.
The French court ballet, both instrumental and vocal, was a contemporary of the first tests of dramatic monody in Florence (the "interludes" in the late sixteenth century). It is the tradition of court ballet that come from the operas-ballets and comedies-ballets of Lully and Molière.
In France, ballet has conquered its pedigree as an art in its own right in the court of King Louis XIV, who was passionate about dance and determined to reverse the decline of this art began in the seventeenth century. Louis XIV established the Royal Academy of Dance in 1661, then in 1669 The Royal Academy of Music. This will be the birth of the prestigious company now known as the Paris Opera Ballet. Pierre Beauchamp, dancer and choreographer at the court, codifies the five classical positions and develop a system of dance notation.
The eighteenth century witnessed a profound evolution in the standards and ballet technique and positions itself as a form of artistic performance alongside opera. The work of Jean-Georges Noverre and Letters on Dancing (1760) are no strangers to the evolution of action or the ballet-pantomime ballet in which the dancer's movements express the feelings of the character he is supposed to represent and aid in understanding the story. At that time, women were hindered by her basket, corsets, wigs and other high heels, played only a secondary role (although it prevails today).
Intermediate ballet, inserted into an opera, then became a specificity of French opera. Can be seen by attending performances of lyric tragedies of Lully and Rameau. Reform Noverre (ballet d'action) and Gluck also retain this practice.
The nineteenth century
The modern ballet includes a succession of episodes that are edited continuously. This type of dance develops in the early nineteenth century in a stand-alone. Indeed, conceptions Wagnerian make obsolete the practice of intermediate ballet.
While France is contributing to the development of ballet in its infancy, other countries, especially Russia, to adopt this new form of art.
After 1850, enthusiasm for ballet began to wane in Paris but finds its fulfillment in Denmark and Russia through ballet masters and choreographers such as August Bournonville, Jules Perrot, Arthur Saint-Leon, Enrico Cecchetti and Marius Petipa. Orientalism became fashionable in the late nineteenth century. Colonialism brings a knowledge of Asian and African cultures, but distorted by misinformation and a lot of fantasy. The east is then perceived as decadent. It is nevertheless the time of the formation of large private collections on the western cultures.
Petipa appealed to popular interest in the amount of Pharaoh's Daughter in 1862, then La Bayadere (1877) and The Talisman (1889). Petipa is best known for his choreography of the ballet The Nutcracker, The Sleeping Beauty and Swan Lake, from European folklore to the music of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
It was then that the tutu appears and discovers the entire leg of the ballerina.
Heir to the "beautiful dance" practiced in Western Europe since the seventeenth century, classical dance for the founding principles of "outside", the five positions of references, plumb, thoroughness and clarity. His tech has grown steadily since the Royal Academy of Dance and has enriched his vocabulary constantly, always in French. With La Sylphide (1832), a major shift: the romantic ideal overwhelms the scene and the dance becomes air, precise, elaborate, and mostly female. This impression of lightness comes from the use of dance shoes called "points" (used for the first time in 1801) and whose toe allows the dancer to stand on its feet peaks. It is then the center of all romantic ballets, the male partners used more "stooges" and "carriers" to the ballerina. The level, the pas de deux and symbolize the rise in new technical skills and the quality and rigor of a ballet company that supports the soloists. It is Marius Petipa, a French national who spent most of his life in Russia, which is one of the great explorers of the conventional technique. He left us many masterpieces such as La Bayadere, Swan Lake or Don Quixote, which are the foundation and basis of classical ballet as we know it today. The word "classic" makes its appearance with the Ballets Russes (1910) and never left the dance.
-> Site for Toby Lerner Ansin
The twentieth century
Serge Diaghilev revived public interest in ballet when he founded his company, the Ballets Russes. It consists of dancers from the community of Russian exiles in Paris after the Revolution of 1917. Diaghilev and Stravinsky combined their talents to live through the Russian folklore the Firebird and Petrushka. A controversy arises for The Rite of Spring, which struck the Americans.
Michel Fokine began his career as a dancer and choreographer in St. Petersburg while that of Petipa declines. Fokine left Russia for Paris where he worked with Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes. In France, Serge Lifar and the United States, with George Balanchine, founder of New York City Ballet and founder of Method Balanchine, ballet is renewed, giving rise to the neo-classical.
The Ballets Russes continue their development under the Soviet regime. There was little talent after the Revolution, but enough to form a new generation of dancers and choreographers who appear on the scene in the mid-1930s. Technical perfection and precision are required by Agrippina Vaganova1 director of the dance school of the Mariinsky Theatre.
The ballet was and remains very popular in Russia. Companies from the Kirov (now Mariinsky) and the Bolshoi Theatre are very appreciated. The ideology of the day forced the two companies to program parts footprints Soviet socialist realism, most of which were not appreciated and subsequently removed from the directory. Nevertheless, some remarkable ballets are like Romeo and Juliet by Sergei Prokofiev. Flames of Paris (1932) makes extensive use of the corps de ballet and requires an astonishing virtuosity in its execution. Bakhchisarai Fountain (1933), danced version of the poem by Alexander Pushkin choreographed by Rostislav Zakharov music by Boris Assafiev is an undeniable success and was performed for the first time the United States by the Kirov Ballet during its tour 1999. Cinderella is a ballet production Soviets. These pieces were little known in the West before the collapse of the USSR.
Since the late seventeenth century, the ballet is organized hierarchically, with regard to technical quality and length of the dancer in the troupe. Each one holds a particular rank, a particular function. The following hierarchy is adopted by the Ballet de l'Opera de Paris and is not universally applied in many other ballet companies.
Master of ballet director of the troupe of dancers, in charge of choreography, rehearsal, organization of the troop, sometimes even music and ballet. This function has changed considerably since, nowadays, the term does more than the daily rehearsal, the rest of the work is often entrusted to a "creative director".
Techniques of ballet
Ballet technique aims to acquire anatomical flexibility of the joints that can perform the various movements of dance vocabulary. Most of the ballet technique suffers few differences by country. The ballet in general and, more particularly the romantic ballet focuses on the method and the performance of mouvements2 which differs physically and aesthetically based teaching method.
The fundamental principles of ballet technique remains the same: general attitude of the body, proper position, alignment of the head and shoulders in a vertical, quantity and quality of rotations leg outward from the body, dance on the tips and flexibility. The goal is a perfect work of the foot, wearing graceful arms and head and aesthetically correct position of the different angles.
The school dance is, above all, the school rigor and discipline. All methods of instruction for its use. The young dance starts early and, during and ending with delivery of the diploma secondaires3. During their schooling, youth also learn the names, the meaning and precise technique of the various movements that make up ballet dancing. The exercises develop strength, balance and flexibility. Future ballerinas acquire the force of the foot and ankle needed for technical tips. It is strongly recommended for young dancers to develop good habits and protect the health of their members, bones and joints.
Methods of teaching dance ballet are called by the name of their designer. There are seven methods of teaching dance ballet. In order of prominence:
Vaganova (Russian). This is the best known and most widely taught.
Besides these methods, there are other methods depending on the country where dance is taught to Ballet:
These techniques, based on those of romantic ballet, are the support of many other dance styles: hip-hop, modern and contemporary dance.
Although sustaining slight variations between countries 'rules' and the vocabulary of classical dance are the same worldwide. The different methods of teaching dance ballet aesthetics are all aimed at the dancer. This is particularly true for the extensions and dynamic turns of Russian school while the Italian school prefers the background work and fast movements of the feet. It is believed that the Tarantella, a traditional dance of Italy, is no stranger to the orientation of Italian ballet.
The dance clothes are perfectly codified and strict, and their goal is to allow freedom of movement, not to hinder the dancer during the turns and allow the master to try the alignment and technique of his pupil.
For women, the traditional dress consists of a leotard or pink tights, black or flesh-colored tights to dance and possibly a skirt or a tutu.
During class and rest periods punctuating the show, they lock their legs, including their ankles in a variety of tubes in order to avoid cooling of the muscles.
Their education is to strengthen the muscles above their feet and ankles to prepare them to dance on pointe. We must not lose sight of that dance on the tips started too early or with inadequate training can lead to accidents or injuries that may occur later and will handicap the ballerina permanently (see related article on tips ).
The men usually wear a black leotard or not associated with a white shirt (or vice versa). They are sometimes dressed in white. Young dancers are happy to an academic. The dancers enclose their genitals worn under a shell in their dance clothes. Their feet are shod in slippers flexible technical black or white. Their education develops their muscles in its entirety and teaches worn, jumps and spins.
To make the numbers dance the most demanding, the dancer must appear to defy gravity. A high level of fitness is required for this purpose. For example, during the large cast, the dancer may appear to hover. Physically its center of gravity in a parabolic like a projectile. The capacity of an observer to estimate the center of gravity when a projectile changes its trajectory is limited. To give the illusion of floating, the dancer extends the arms and legs up the mask to fall and gives the viewer the illusion that vole4, 5, 6. Jumping cat also gives the impression that either the dancer is suspended in the air. The contact with the ground should be fully programmed. The successful dancer bends his knees and hits the ground on tiptoe. He then proceeds towards the end of the heel. This technique should always be taught by an experienced teacher for artistic reasons as well as by measuring security.7, 8, 9.
Dance ballet is considered a type of dance the most difficult to learn and master but also support all other forms of dance