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Jennifer is wife of Colin Giltrap (motor trade in New Zealand and Britain, where he has been an investor in luxury car group HR Owen).

Jennifer Giltrap husband Jennifer Giltrap smile Colin Giltrap

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Formula 1, commonly abbreviated to F1, is a discipline of motorsport considered the premier class of the sport. She has taken over the years a global dimension and with the Olympics and World Cup soccer, is one of the most publicized sporting events.

Each year since 1950 a world championship is organized and pilot since 1958 a world championship car manufacturers was established. The competition is based on Grand Prix racing cars on board, played on closed road circuits but sometimes permanent and temporary tracks in town, like Monaco, Valencia and Singapore.

The sport, governed by the Federation International Automobile (FIA), is managed by Formula One Administration (FOA) and a set of satellite companies controlled by Bernie Ecclestone. After the era of the craftsmen of the 1960s and 1970s, it has gradually attracted the world's top automakers who invest large sums of money, hoping to capitalize on media coverage of possible success. Formula 1 is regarded as a technological showcase for the automotive industry who is experimenting with new techniques, often derived from space technology could be adapted and then on the cars.

Besides the competition, the term refers to all Formula 1 technical regulations for cars cars that are updated annually by the FIA. These rules are very strict on the size of car, engine capacity, technology implementations, they also define the security measures to protect car driver. The race cars that meet the requirements of the regulations of Formula 1 are generally designated by the generic term of Formula 1.

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History

The history of Formula 1 has its origin in racing competed in Europe in the years 1920 and 1930. It really began in 1946 with the Uniform Rules required by the Commission Sportive Internationale (CSI) of the Federation International Automobile (FIA) under the name "International Racing Formula No. 1", which will be found quickly Short in Formula 1. A world championship of Formula 1 is created in 1950 and a Constructors 'Cup in 1958 (which becomes the constructors' world championship from 1982). The history of this discipline is closely dependent on performance cars and technical regulations that regulate competitions. Although the gain of the world championship is the main goal, many Formula 1 races were held without being integrated into the world championship. The final, played at Brands Hatch, took place in 1983. National championships were also held in South Africa and the United Kingdom in the years 1960 and 1970.

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The Beginnings (1950-1957)

The drivers' championship was officially launched Saturday, May 13, 1950 at Silverstone during the Grand Prix of Great Britain [3]. Created last year at the initiative of the Commission Sportive Internationale [4] (the sports governing body the Federation Internationale de l'Automobile), the Grand Prix championship meets Europe's most prestigious (with the notable exception of Grand Prices in Germany) and Indianapolis 500, event primarily used to endorse the global nature of the championship since it was not played under the rules of Formula 1, but according to the International Formula [ 5].

Only five years after the end of the Second World War, holding a world championship is a bold project [5], only the European economies begin to recover. Logically, the first championship trays are quite disparate, and as a symbol, is the Alfa Romeo 158, a car whose design dates back to 1937, dominating the debates. The veteran Italian Giuseppe Farina won the opening round of the championship before becoming the first world champion in history [6], defeating Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio who will take his revenge the following year [7].

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Despite the rise of the Scuderia Ferrari won the Grand Prix of Great Britain 1951 his first victory, thanks to Argentina's Jose Froilan Gonzalez [8], and which passed near the track with Alberto Ascari [9] the financial health of the championship is uncertain [10] and the announced withdrawal of Alfa Romeo at the end of the year [11] raises concerns about a lack of competitors. To remedy this situation, the ITUC decided to reserve championships in 1952 and 1953 cars in Formula 2 [12].

As expected, new competitors for most British, respond favorably to the move to Formula 2. If the grids are garnish, this does not prevent the widespread domination of Ferrari who crushes the competition with its leader Alberto Ascari. The competition took shape in 1953 with the emergence at the highest level of Maserati [13], which can count on the return of Juan Manuel Fangio absent through injury last season: Ascari is again titrated but the duel between Ferrari and Maserati gives place in Reims [14], [15] and Monza [16] that journalists call "the race of the century" [17], indicating that after a slow start, the championship is well and truly launched [ 18].

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Formula 2 having revived the championship, decided to CSI from 1954 to reopen it to Formula 1 cars, the maximum capacity permitted from 2 to 2.5 liters. This decision not only does not flee the small craftsmen but draws two prestigious manufacturers: Mercedes-Benz [19] and Lancia [20]. Symbol of the dynamism of the championship, four major manufacturers involved has a car with different characteristics: V8 Lancia, 8-cylinder Mercedes-Benz, 6 cylinder in-line 4-cylinder Maserati and Ferrari online. Seasons 1954 and 1955 are largely dominated by Mercedes-Benz, allowing Fangio won two additional world titles.

The dominance of the Silver Arrows is such that it raises concerns for the balance of the championship, especially as Lancia and Maserati are experiencing significant financial problems. But the decision, partly motivated by the plight of the 24 Hours of Le Mans [21], Mercedes-Benz to leave the competition end of 1955 and the sale by promising his Lancia D50 [22] Ferrari can return to duels Ferrari / Maserati. This struggle builders, a man emerges: Champion in 1956 for Ferrari and Maserati in 1957, Fangio is his record of five world titles.

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The "Mechanics" (1958-1981)

The physiognomy of the world championship changed abruptly in 1958 when British manufacturers, who until then were mostly figurative behind the Mercedes and Italian brands, receive dividends from their last substantive work. A Ferrari driver (Mike Hawthorn [23], which opens a series of twelve consecutive titles for Commonwealth citizens) is titled, but the first Cup returns to manufacturers Vanwall [24], while Cooper [25] creates the sensation being overcome through the Rob Walker Racing [26] Buenos Aires [27] and Monaco [28] a mid-mounted engine car powered by a Coventry Climax engine [29] 2-liter makes more than a hundred horses to competition . Enzo Ferrari [30] sees this innovation in one eye and sarcastic this final sentence: "the horses pull the plow and do not grow." This technical solution that favors maneuverability at the expense of raw power does not take long to school. It also helps to change the world championship era that is no longer a matter of major manufacturers, but now assemblers (the "Mechanics" as called Enzo Ferrari with contempt), with emphasis on design chassis. The early success of the Cooper confirmed in 1959 and 1960 by two world titles by Australian Jack Brabham [31], while two other brands, BRM [32] Lotus [33] undertake a similar way.

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In 1961, to curb the escalation of performance, the maximum displacement of Formula 1 from 2.5 to 1.5 liters, containing technical regulations in Formula 2, which disappears momentarily. Despite the short since October 1958, this formula has not been anticipated at best the British-built, leaving the field open to Ferrari, the engine finally went back, dominating the championship. Their pilots are unfortunately the tie of the worst ways, Wolfgang von Trips [34] killing himself at the last race of the season in Monza [35], offering the same token the title to American Phil Hill [36]. Undermined by internal crisis over the winter, the Scuderia is unable to build on this success and the British resumed their domination in 1962, Graham Hill [37] BRM binding on her. This season is also marked by the emergence of Jim Clark [38], which is close to the track at the wheel of his revolutionary Lotus 25 [39] monohull that breaks with the traditional tubular chassis, designed by engineer Colin Chapman. The duo Chapman / Clark realizes the double driver / constructor championships 1963 and 1965, reaching as Ferrari does straighten his head briefly in 1964 by former champion John Surtees Motorcycle [40] that achieves the feat of being titrated on four wheels after having been on both.

In 1966, a new regulatory change is introduced that makes ironing the maximum displacement of 3 liters, the goal being to rebuild the Formula 1 the pinnacle of motorsport, disputed status by the powerful prototype of the world championship sports car . The first two seasons of the new Formula 1 are marked by the beginnings of most competitors who are struggling to find the perfect power (the prize for innovation with its back to BRM H16 engine that will prove to be a fiasco), this Brabham enjoyed by [41], a follower of technical solutions rustic (tubular chassis and motor Repco [42] derived from an Oldsmobile block) to shine. Always at the forefront of innovation, Lotus, who strayed into buying at the BRM H16 engine, reacts by ordering Cosworth [43], by funding from Ford, a landmark engine, the V8 Cosworth DFV which dominate for nearly fifteen years. After a promising start in 1967, the Lotus 49 dominated the 1968 season at the hands of veteran British Graham Hill, who has supplemented his teammate Jim Clark, who suffered a fatal accident early season in Formula 2. The 1968 season proves that Lotus does not shine by its technical innovations, but also by its responsiveness to the political. Earlier this year, CSI, taking into account the increased cost discipline, allows non-sport sponsorship. Lotus immediately sign a partnership with Imperial Tobacco and replaces the dress British Racing Green of its cars with a red and gold livery of Gold Leaf colors [44]. The traditional color code in place since the 1920s lived.

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The growing power of engines (more than four hundred horse) begins to cause adhesion problems with cars. In this context appear in the Grand Prix of Belgium 1968 [45] the first fins, initially set directly on the suspension arms are designed on the principle of aircraft wings inverted and used to pull the car to the ground. Late 1968, season disrupted repeatedly by rain, another solution is explored by several teams (Lotus, Matra, [46] McLaren [47]), the design of cars to four wheel drive to distribute power between the front and rear. The difficulties of developing such cars and being overweight caused lead engineers to abandon this course and develop fins, which leads to extreme solutions, the cars being equipped with wings, perched high in the front aft. The dual occurrence of Hill and Rindt Lotus [48] in the Grand Prix of Spain [49] (with a few laps of each other, the passage of a bump, the fins of the two cars were sold, sending their pilots in the walls protection) led the sporting power to prohibit these fins high indefinitely.

The rapid increase in performance is not without consequence on the mortality rate of pilots. The late 1960s and early 1970s is one of the darkest periods of Formula 1, even if driven by Jackie Stewart [50], changing the mentality of drivers so that die at the wheel does is increasingly seen as inevitable. The accident most emblematic of this period is that of Austrian Jochen Rindt [51], driving his revolutionary Lotus 72 (which with its lateral radiators, foreshadows the aesthetics of race cars for decades to come) is killed in tests of the Italian Grand Prix 1970 [52]. Firmly in mind the overall standings at the time of his death, he became world champion posthumously.

Despite the many tragedies that have affected (Clark died in April 1968 and Rindt in September 1970), Lotus is still the dominant team and is again titrated in 1972 with the Brazilian Fittipaldi [53]. The supremacy of the Lotus is regularly challenged by the Tyrrell team [54] with which Jackie Stewart won the title in 1969, 1971 and 1973. The first of three titles acquired is driving a car French Matra (Tyrrell taking the opportunity to name the Matra International). In 1974, Fittipaldi won his second world title and the first of the McLaren team but the season is marked by the return to form of the Scuderia Ferrari, led by Niki Lauda [55], titled in 1975 and again in 1977, after leaving escape the title in 1976 (James Hunt [56], McLaren) in dramatic circumstances [57].

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The second half of the 1970s was marked by several radical technological innovations. The most spectacular but least effective, is initiated by Tyrrell in 1976 that reveals his famous model P34 [58], a six-wheeled car: each half-axle is equipped with two front wheels to increase traction while reducing drag. Despite the victory by Jody Scheckter [59] Grand Prix of Sweden 1976 [60] and several high-level performance, the solution will not do school, especially since the cost of wheels is proving prohibitive. In 1977, Lotus unveiled its model 78, car, ground effect also known as "wing car" as equipped with a shaped bottom inverted airplane wing associated with side skirts almost sealed, which creates a powerful vacuum and therefore provides a phenomenal roadholding. After a season of development, Lotus crushes the championship 1978, won by American driver Mario Andretti [61]. At the end of the season, all teams to follow suit but Brabham Lotus has responded by developing a car with a fan drawing air under the car to produce an even higher ground effect. After just one race where Niki Lauda wins an easy victory (Grand Prix of Sweden 1978 [62]), the device is prohibited by the power of sport. Finally, the most important innovation of this period is French Renault [63] which, in 1977, his debut world championship with a turbocharged engine. After a slow start (Ken Tyrrell [64] this car nicknamed "the yellow teapot" [65], because of the fragility of the mechanical part, which was a horrible black on a yellow car), a triumph for Renault its first turbo engine in the Grand Prix de France 1979 [66], demonstrating the correctness of his choice.

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The technological revolution that shakes the Formula 1 of the late 1970s is associated with major political maneuvering that commit. Meeting within the FOCA, a lobby group intended to defend their interests, the major British teams intend to weigh more heavily on the direction of the discipline by taking advantage of the passivity of CSI until the election at its head, 1978, French writer Jean-Marie Balestre. Concerned about the Renault turbo engine performance, the British asked the ban, knowing that a technology as sharp and costly can be controlled by the major manufacturers (Renault, Ferrari, Alfa Romeo). For its part, the CSI (which became FISA) intends to improve the safety of Grand Prix and wants to ban skirts, these aerodynamic efficiency to give all their wing cars. This struggle for influence between the FOCA Bernie Ecclestone and FIA Balestre, known as "FISA-FOCA War" to fear that time the establishment of a parallel league (the organization of the African Grand Prix South 1981 under the auspices of the World Federation of Motor Sports Federation "ghost" created by the FOCA, will go elsewhere to that effect, but no action) before the different actors do not sign in the spring of 1981, " agreements of the Concorde which endorse the division of powers between FISA and FOCA.

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The mass media (1982-1999)

As called FISA, the wing cars are banned from 1983 while the British team accept the presence of turbocharged engines. They accept more that far to see their existence threatened by the influx of large brands, they would make technical partners: Brabham (led by Bernie Ecclestone, the leader of the FOCA) has signed an agreement supply with BMW turbo engines [67] in 1982, McLaren did the same with Porsche [68] and Williams [69] with Honda [70]. The takeover of turbo engines a reality in 1982 (world title for Ferrari manufacturers, however, avoid leaving the track driver Keke Rosberg [71] in his Williams Cosworth air) and then in 1983, when Nelson Piquet [72] is on his Brabham-BMW the first drivers world champion with a turbo engine. The Turbo years are then dominated by the McLaren-TAG turbo Lauda (1984) and Alain Prost [73] (1985 and 1986), Williams-Honda (constructors 'title in 1986 and 1987 drivers' title in 1987 for Nelson Piquet ) and the McLaren-Honda in 1988 (15 wins in 16 races and the title for Ayrton Senna [74] teammate Alain Prost).

These years of excess in terms of power. At their peak in 1986, blocks turbocharged develop more than 1 400 horses specification skills, the power being reduced to 850 horses for the race. For security, FISA limits the power in 1987, then banned completely in 1989.

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If the return air attracts many small teams (Scuderia Italia [75], Colon [76] Rial [77], Eurobrun [78 ]...) seduced by regulation a priori more affordable, providing motorists Judd and Cosworth many blocks at a reasonable price, it does not change the balance of power. The teams supported by manufacturers GPs continue to carve the lion's share: McLaren Honda, Williams Renault, Ferrari and to a lesser extent the Benetton team [79], supported by Ford. McLaren dominated the 1989 season, marked by deteriorating relations between Prost and Senna, whose rivalry passionate audience, then wins with more difficulties in 1990 and 1991, its dominance is thwarted by Ferrari (reinforced by Prost in 1990) and Williams-Renault. The latter, in advance in the control of electronic driving aids (ABS, traction control, active suspension, gearbox Semi-automatic) dominates the seasons 1992 (with Nigel Mansell [80]) and 1993 (with Alain Prost).

The ban of most electronic aids redistributes the cards at the edge of the 1994 season. But the expected duel between Ayrton Senna (Williams-Renault) and the young Michael Schumacher [81] (Benetton-Ford) cut short when the Brazilian triple world champion was killed at the Grand Prix of San Marino [82], the next day of the fatal accident of Austrian Roland Ratzenberger novice [83]. With two deaths in one weekend, including one of its most popular driver, the championship of the world knows her darkest hours, no fatalities have been in competition to speak of since those of Gilles Villeneuve [84] and RICCARDO Paletti [85] in 1982. Pointed at for complacency in terms of safety, the FIA ??hardens rapidly legislation, the measure most spectacular being the limitation of 3-liter engines from next season. From the Grand Prix of San Marino 1994, no F1 driver has not killed and only two deaths are regrettable: a firefighter in 2000 and a marshal in 2001, both killed by debris due to accidents .

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Sacred in tragic circumstances in 1994, Schumacher retains his world title in 1995, driving a Benetton now powered by a Renault engine. The French engine, which also equips Williams puts its four drivers in the first four places in the championship. In 1996, the departure of Schumacher at Ferrari and Benetton weakens leaves the field open to Williams, who carries the double pilot-builder in 1996 with Damon Hill [86] and in 1997 with Jacques Villeneuve [87]. The withdrawal of Renault and the departure of Adrian Newey's engineering fetish puts an end to the domination enjoyed by McLaren from Williams, reinforced by that Newey and whose association with the German manufacturer Mercedes-Benz is starting to bear fruit. Subdued since the successive departures of Senna and Honda in 1992 and 1993, McLaren revives the world titles in 1998 and 1999, two championships won by the Finn Mika Häkkinen

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