Helene van Beuren is wife of Archbold van Beuren (son of Hope Hill van Beuren - Campbell Soup heiress)
It consists of thirty-two canvases, each 50.8 cm high by 40.6 cm wide (20 x 16 inches) and a painting of a Campbell soup can, each of the varieties of canned soup that company was offering at that time-.2 The individual paintings were made with a semi-mechanized silkscreen process. The support of Campbell's Soup Cans in matters of popular culture helped to pop art to be installed as an artistic movement of transcendence.
For Warhol, a commercial illustrator who became a successful author, painter and filmmaker, this book was his first solo exhibition in an art gallery as an artist profesional.3 4 The work exhibited for the first time at the Ferus Gallery Los Angeles, marked the debut of pop art in the West Coast of the United States.5 At first, the combination of semi-mechanized process, style, and the trade issue caused discomfort since the obvious mundane commercialism represented a direct affront to the technique and philosophy of abstract expressionism, an artistic movement that was dominant during the period after World War II not only clinging to the values ??and aesthetics of the "Fine Arts", but also to a mystical inclination. This controversy led to a great debate about the ethics and merits which involved such work. Warhol's motives as an artist were questioned, and continue today. The public commotion helped transform Warhol an experienced commercial illustrator 1950 to a notable fine artist, and made it indistinguishable from other pop-ups. Although commercial demand for his paintings was not immediate, Warhol's relationship with the subject led to his name became synonymous with the paintings of Campbell soup cans.
Subsequently, Warhol produced a wide variety of works of art representing Campbell soup cans and other works based on a wide variety of images of world trade and media. The Campbell Soup Cans term is usually used in reference to the original series of paintings as well as drawings and paintings that Warhol made later and also represent Campbell soup cans. Due to the popularity that ultimately charged for the entire series, Warhol's reputation grew to the point where not only was the American pop artist's most renowned, 6 but also the most quoted living American artist of the moment.
New York art scene
Warhol came to New York City in 1949 from the School of Fine Arts Institute of Technology was successful Carnegie.8 rapidly as a commercial illustrator and his first published drawing appeared in the summer issue of Glamour magazine in the year 1949.9 In 1952, he held his first exhibition in an art gallery, Bodley Gallery, with a presentation of works inspired by Truman Capote.10 In 1955, he was tracing photographs of the photographic collection of the New York Public Library with the help of Nathan Gluck and reproducing them with the process that had previously developed in college at Carnegie Institute of Technology. This process, which would use in his later works, was printed with fresh ink illustrations on a papel.11 made during the 1950 regular exhibitions of his drawings, even going to exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, with an exhibition entitled Recent Drawings (recent drawings), in the year 1956.8
In 1960, Warhol began to make his first paintings on canvas, based on drawings cómicas.12 strip the end of 1961, learned the process of screen printing with the help of Floriano Vecchi, 13 who had led the "Tiber Press" since 1953. Although the process usually begins with a drawing stencil, often develops from an enlarged photograph is printed later using glue on tissue paper. In any case, it needs to produce a glue-based version of a two-dimensional positive image (positive means that open spaces are left where the paint appear.) Typically, the ink is spread over the medium to pass through the tissue and not the pegamento.14 The Campbell soup cans were among the first productions Warhol silkscreen, the first of all were U.S. dollar bills. The pieces were made with stencils, each of one color. Warhol did not use photographs for screen printed until after the end of the original series of soup cans Campbell.15
While Warhol had made screen printed comic strip and other areas of pop art, supposedly entrusted himself to cans of soup to avoid competing with the more refined style of comics by Roy Lichtenstein.16 In fact, once said:
In February 1962, Lichtenstein exhibited his works in an exhibition of cartoons, same in all the works were sold in the eponymous Leo Castelli Gallery, ending the possibility that Warhol exhibited his own drawings animados.17 In fact, himself had visited the Leo Castelli Gallery Warhol in 1961 and said the work he saw there was very similar to Lichtenstein, 18 19 although the caricature art of Warhol and Lichtenstein differed in subjects and techniques (eg figures Warhol's comic strip cartoons were humorous popular culture as Popeye, while Lichtenstein were usually stereotypical heroes and heroines, comic-inspired adventure and romance) .20 Castelli decided not to represent those artists at that time but in 1964, expose some works by Warhol, including his reproductions of Campbell juice boxes and boxes of soap Brillo.21 would return to present the works of Warhol in 1966.22 The solo exhibition of Lichtenstein in 1962 was followed by Wayne Thiebaud on 17 April of that year in the Allan Stone Gallery, which presented performances of American food, which stirred at Warhol as he felt that threatened their own works of Warhol sopa.23 cans was considering returning to the Bodley Gallery, but the director did not like that place their artwork pop.13 In 1961, Allan Stone Warhol offered a joint exhibition with two other artists, Rosenquist and Robert Indiana, in the Gallery 18 East and Calle 82, but three were insulted with this proposición.24 Irving Blum was the first dealer to expose the paintings of soup cans Warhol.3 Warhol Blum was visiting in May 1962, just at a time when Warhol was just emerging in an article in the May 11 Time magazine called "The Cake Slice-of-School" (which included a sample of dollar bills silkscreen Warhol), along with Lichtenstein, Rosenquist and Warhol Thiebaud.25 Wayne was the only one whose photo appeared in the article, which is an indicator of its power to manipulate the media comunicación.26 Blum saw dozens of variations of Campbell soup cans that day, including a grid with a hundred cans of Blum was surprised sopa.16 that Warhol had not associated with any art gallery and offered an exhibition at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles. This would be the first solo exhibition of his art pop.3 4 Blum assured the newly formed Warhol Artforum magazine, which had an office on the top floor of the gallery, would cover the event. Not only was the first exhibition in an art gallery totally focused on Warhol, but was also considered the best opening of an exhibition of pop art in the West Coast.
Warhol sent to Blum thirty-two canvas 20 x 16 inches with images of Campbell soup cans, each portraying one of the different flavors available in this época.2 The 32 paintings are very similar: each is a realistic representation the iconic can of Campbell soup red and white silk screen on a white background. The paintings are minor variations in names that indicate the flavor of soup. Most of these names are written in red letters, however, four other varieties also have black letters accompanying the red: Clam Soup (Clam Chowder) has black letters under the name of the variety that say "Manhattan Style" ("Manhattan Style"), indicating that the soup has a tomato base broth instead of the traditional New England style based on cream, the beef (Beef) has black letters under the name of the variety they say "Vegetable and barley" ("With Vegetables and Barley"), the Scotch Broth (Scotch Broth) also has black letters under the name of the variety that say "A hearty soup" ("A Hearty Soup") and the Minestrone, which also has black letters that say "Italian-style Vegetable Soup" ("Italian-Style Vegetable Soup"). There are two varieties that have additional words in brackets in red lettering below the variety name: Caldo de res (Beef Broth), whose word in brackets is "Bouillon" and broth (consommé), which reads 'Beef'. The font size differs only slightly in the name of the varieties, but there are some notable differences style. Tomato and rice the traditional (Old-fashioned Tomato Rice) is the only variety whose name is written in lowercase. This writing appears to be a tiny typeface slightly different from the others. There are other differences in style. Old-fashioned Tomato Rice has the word "Soup" written on the bottom of the can, taking the place where the other 31 varieties have a number of ornamental lilies. In addition, Cheddar Cheese (Cheddar Cheese) has two gold bands or ribbons: in the center-left, one that says "New!" (New!), and another that says center Great as a dip too! (Great As A Sauce Too!).
The exhibition opened on July 9, 1962 at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles, Warhol being absent. The thirty-two individual paintings of soup cans were placed in a single row on the wall, 27 as if they were products on shelves, each one exposed in narrow ledges individuales.21 The impact of the works was moderate at the time, but today These days it is considered that this show had a historical impact of great magnitude, being the key to the rise of pop art. The public gallery was not sure what to think about exposure. An article by John Coplans for Artforum magazine, which was partly prompted by the display of dozens of paintings of soup cans in a nearby gallery, and these with an announcement by offering the three for 60 cents, provided that people is put for 29 Warhol.28 few actually saw the paintings in the exhibition in Los Angeles or in Warhol's studio, but word spread quickly because of the controversy and scandal that produced these works, apparently trying to duplicate the appearance of objects manufacturados.30 The extensive debate about the ethics and merits of focusing the efforts of a person in a business model as mundane inanimate Warhol continued to work within the art world conversations. The experts could not believe that an artist would reduce the manifestation of the art equivalent of a trip to the supermarket. However, the talks on the issue did not translate into monetary success for Warhol. Dennis Hopper was the first of only half a dozen people to pay $ 100 for a painting. Blum decided to try to keep the 32 paintings as a group bought back intact and poor sales. This pleased to Warhol, who originally conceived of as a group and agreed to sell the whole Blum ten monthly payments of 100 dólares.28 15 Warhol had lived his first serious art exhibition. Unfortunately, while this show was performing in Los Angeles, canceled another planned for December 1962.31
The exhibition at Ferus ended August 4, 1962, the day before the death of Marilyn Monroe, Warhol who bought a frame from the movie Niagara advertising he used later to produce one of his best known works: his painting of Marilyn . Although Warhol continued to paint more pop art, including Martinson coffee cans, bottles of Coca-Cola, S & H Green Stamps and more cans of Campbell soup, it soon became known to many as the artist who painted celebrities. He returned to the Blum gallery to exhibit his paintings of Elvis Presley and Elizabeth Taylor in October 1963.3 Warhol Fans of Dennis Hopper and Brooke Hayward (Hopper's wife at the time) organized a welcome party for evento.32
Since Warhol gave no indication of a definite order for the collection of cans sequence chosen by the Museum of Modern Art in New York in the permanent exhibition of the collection reflects the chronological order in which the varieties were marketed by Campbell Soup Company, beginning with Tomato (Tomato) in the upper left corner, which appeared in 1897.2
There are many anecdotal stories that attempt to explain why Warhol chose Campbell soup cans as the central point of pop art. One reason given is that needed a new theme after she decided to leave the comics, decision made in part because of his respect for the work of Roy Lichtenstein, who considered more refined.
According to Ted Carey, one of the sales assistants to Warhol's art late 1950 - was Muriel who suggested Latow painted soup cans and Muriel Latow dólares.33 tickets at that time aspired to become a decorator Interior and owned Latow Art Gallery in the Upper East Side neighborhood in Manhattan, New York. He told Warhol painting was "something you see every day and we all recognize. Something like a can of Campbell's soup. " Ted Carey, who was there at the time, said that Warhol responded, "Oh, that sounds great." According to Carey, Warhol went to a supermarket the next day and bought a box of "all the soups," Carey said when he went to see Warhol's department the next day.
When the art critic G.R. Swenson asked in 1963 why Warhol painted soup cans, the artist replied:
Another story about the influence of Warhol Latow contends that she asked him what he loved most and as Warhol said "money", suggested he painted dollar bills estadounidenses.36 According to this story later recommended Latow also to paint more money should paint something that was very simple, as Campbell soup cans.
In an interview with the London magazine The Face in 1985, David Yarrow asked Warhol about flowers that Andy's mother used to make cans. In its response, Warhol mentioned them as one of the reasons behind his first paintings of cans:
Several stories suggest that the choice of Warhol's soup cans reflect his avid devotion to Campbell Soup as a consumer. Robert Indiana once said:
It was thought that had focused on them because they made up a staple in their diet diaria.38 Others noted that Warhol just painted things that were close emotionally. I enjoyed eating Campbell's soup, had a predilection for the Coca-Cola, loved and admired the money movie stars. In this way, it all became part of their work. Another story says that his daily lunch in their study consisted of a soup Cambpell and Coca-Cola, and thus, their inspiration came from seeing the empty cans and bottles accumulated in escritorio.39
Warhol did not choose the cans because of their trade relations with the Campbell Soup Company. Although the company at that time sold four out of five cans of soup prepared in the United States, Warhol preferred the company does not get involved "because the whole point would be lost with any trade association '.40 However, for 1965, the company knew him so well that Warhol was able to convince them to allow him to use real and can labels for an exhibition invitations, 41 the company even commissioned a cuadro.42
Warhol had a positive view of ordinary culture and felt that Abstract Expressionists were too stubborn to ignore the splendor of modernidad.6 The number of Campbell soup cans, along with his other series, gave an opportunity to express their views modern culture positive. However, deadpan attitude attempted to be devoid of emotional feedback and sociales.6 43 In fact, the work was expected to have no personality or individual expression alguna.44 45 Warhol's vision is summarized in the quotation:
His pop art work differed from some artists such as Monet, who used to represent series refined perception and show that a painter could recreate changes over time, light, seasons and weather with eye and hand . Warhol is seen as a representative of the modern era of commercialization and uncritical monotony. When Warhol occasionally showed variations, was not "realistic." Subsequent variations in color were almost a mockery of refined perception. Adoption of the silkscreen process pseudoindustrial spoke against the use of the series to demonstrate the subtlety. Warhol sought to reject the invention and the hue giving the feeling that their work had been printed, 44 and in fact, recreating imperfections serial sistemáticamente.36 His works helped him to escape the growing shadow of Lichtenstein.46 Although its not soup cans were considered so scandalous and vulgar as his other early works of pop art, and even offended the sensibilities of the art world that had developed to take part in the inner emotions of the expression artística.44
In contrast to the baskets of fruit by Caravaggio, Chardin peaches or apples of Cézanne arrangements, the mundane Campbell soup cans gave the art world cooling. Moreover, the idea of ??isolating objects eminently recognizable pop culture was so ridiculous for the art world as both ethical merits of the work were the subject of debate perfectly reasonable for those who had not even seen the piezas.47 Pop Art Warhol may be related to minimal art in the sense that it tries to represent objects in their most simple and immediately recognizable. Eliminates pop art hues and backgrounds who would otherwise be associated with representaciones.
Warhol clearly changed the concept of artistic appreciation. Instead of smooth three-dimensional positioning of objects, selected mechanical derivations commercial illustration with an emphasis on multi empaque.40 Variations on soup cans, for example, made the process of repeating a technique appreciated:
The multiple representations of cans unchanged almost became an abstraction whose details were less important than conjunto.50 In a sense, the representation was more important than what representaba.48 Warhol's interest in creating pop art with the help machine during its early days was misunderstood by people in the art world whose value system was threatened by mecanización.51
In Europe, the public had a different way of viewing these works. Many saw it as a subversive satire of capitalism and Marxist subversive estadounidense.40 If not, was at least considered a Marxist critique of culture popular.52 Given the apolitical view of Warhol in general it is unlikely that this was actually real message. In fact, it is possible that the pop art was nothing more than an attempt to draw attention to their trabajo.40
In an attempt to complement the message of his art, Warhol pop personality adopted after the media took note of his art. Began to show a standard image teenager, immersing himself in popular culture Rock & Roll shows and fan magazines. While previous artists used repetition in his works to demonstrate their ability to represent changes, coupled Warhol's "repetition" with the "sameness" to declare his love for art subjects.
The success of Warhol's original series continued with several related works incorporating the same theme of Campbell soup cans. These works along with the original post are referred to collectively as the series of Campbell's soup cans and often just as Campbell soup cans. Later works of Campbell's soup cans were very diverse. The lengths of the paintings ranged from 50 cm (20 inches) to 182 cm (6 feet) .53 Generally, the cans were portrayed as if they were newly manufactured cans, flawless. Occasionally, I decided to represent them with tags cut, peeled, or crushed cans with their lids open. Sometimes adding related objects like a bowl of soup or a can opener. Sometimes also produced images of related objects without the presence of cans of soup, as is the case of tomato juice boxes Campbell, not strictly part of the series but are of the same subject. Many of these works were produced in his famous study "The Factory" (The Factory). Irving Blum made it possible for the 32 original paintings are exposed publicly through an arrangement with the National Gallery of Art in Washington D. C. to assign a permanent loan two days after the death of Warhol.36 54 However, the original Campbell's Soup Cans are part of the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York.2 A painting called Campbell's Soup Cans II is part of the permanent collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago. 200 cans of Campbell's Soup, 1962 (acrylic on canvas, 72 x 100 inches) in the private collection of John and Kimiko Power, is the single largest paint all the paintings of Campbell soup cans. It consists of a grid of ten rows and twenty columns of cans of many flavors of soup. Experts place it as one of the most significant works of art, pop, pop as much a representation as a conjunction with his immediate predecessors as Jasper Johns and the heirs of minimalist art movements and the very similar conceptual.55 100 cans is part of the Collection Albright-Knox Museum.
In many other works, including original series, Warhol radically simplified the gold medallion that appears on Campbell soup cans, replacing the pair of allegorical figures included within the medallion with a yellow disc with no detail alguno.40 Most variations, the only hint came the three-dimensional shading at the top of the can, otherwise, the picture would be flat. Works with torn labels are seen as metaphors for life in the sense that even packaged food must meet its end. They are often described as expresionistas.56
In 1970, Warhol established a record price of sale at auction, $ 60,000 for a painting by American artist alive in the sale of Great soup Campbell labeled torn (vegetables and beef)-Big Campbell's Soup Can Torn with Label (Vegetable Beef) - 1962 in a sale at Parke-Bernet, the prominent American auction house (later acquired by Sotheby's) .7 This record was broken a few months later by his rival for the attention and approval within the art world, Roy Lichtenstein, who sold a representation of a giant bushes near, Great Painting No. 6 (Big Painting No. 6), 1965 for $ 75,000.
In May 2006, Campbell's Soup Can with small tear (pepper pot) "Small Torn Campbell Soup Can (Pepper Pot) - 1962 Warhol, sold for $ 11,776,000 and set a record at auction for a painting of the series of soup cans Campbell.57 58 The work was left to the collection of Eli Broad, 59, a man who once set the record for the largest credit card transaction when it acquired Lo ... sorry ("I. .. I'm Sorry") of Lichtenstein for $ 2.5 million with an American card Express.60 Selling Warhol for $ 11.7 million was part of the sales of Impressionist Art modern, post-war and contemporary art at Christie's auction house in the spring of 2006, which raised a total of 438,768,924 dólares.61
The wide variety of works produced using a mechanized process with the help of many partners, the popularity of Warhol, the value of their works and the diversity of works across several genres gave rise to the need to establish the authenticity of the Arts Council of Andy Warhol to certify the authenticity of works of Warhol.62
The production of Campbell soup cans of Andy Warhol went through three distinct stages. The first was in 1962, during which he created realistic images, and even produced numerous pencil strokes tema.46 In 1965, Warhol took up this theme to arbitrarily replace the original colors red and white with a wide variety of dyes. At the end of 1970, again returned to the soup cans, this time reversing and reversing the images. However, some personalities from the art world consider that Warhol's works that were completed after gunshot wounds in an attack which was the subject in 1968-occurred the day before the assassination of Robert Kennedy-54 are less significant than those produced anteriormente.63
Today, the most famous works of Campbell soup cans of Warhol correspond to the first phase. Warhol is also known for his iconic series of silkscreen of celebrities like Elvis Presley, Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor and Mao Tse Tung, produced during its silk-screened between 1962 and 1964. In fact, the most recurrent themes of his paintings were Taylor, Monroe, Presley, Jackie Kennedy and celebrities like, beating cans sopa.64 Besides being a notable artist, Warhol was a famous cinematographer, writer and commercial illustrator. Posthumously, Warhol became the subject of the art museum dedicated to one artist of greater size Unidos.65 States 66 Many of Warhol art exhibition include footage from their productions and film director. Some say that his contributions as an artist pale in comparison with those as director of cine.67 Others make it clear that it was not exactly the most skilled artist of his época.68 However, their techniques were emulated by other respected artists, 69 works continue to trade for large sums of money.