• Prior to 1993, directing the "Urayneftegaz, in April the same year was named president of state oil company Rosneft.
• After retiring from Rosneft in 1998, worked as a special representative of British Petroleum / Amoco in oil company Sidanco.
• In 2004, he became co-owner of Drilling Company "Eurasia".
• In 2010, 211 units of "Eurasia" was drilled 1,416 wells.
Alexander Putilov: "Change of ownership does not relieve from liability" | Interview
November 19, 2008
Integrated provision of nuclear, radiation and ecological security requires organized reliable and cost effective management of spent nuclear fuel. Our guest - Alexander Putilov, Ph.D., professor, laureate of the Russian Federation in science and technology, general director of GNC Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials named after Academician AA Bochvar.
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- Alexander, what is the current situation with the spent fuel?
- SNF - spent nuclear fuel is not "spent" or "waste" as many think. It is above all energy resources, and to a certain degree of burnout - supply of fissile materials. But spent fuel - a very specific "functional" materials, with complex and diverse properties, including appearing in the irradiated fuel assemblies (FAs) ionizing radiation. In general, the problem of spent nuclear fuel until the end has not yet been developed. Today, none of the countries developing nuclear energy, not proceeded to a system of long-term immobilization of spent nuclear fuel. There are programs for final isolation of spent nuclear fuel, conducting research, nevertheless the beginning of such a system work is constantly delayed, and, in all countries to develop nuclear technology.
The specialists are still arguing about how to relate to SNF: how to waste or valuable raw materials? Assume irradiated nuclear fuel waste simply too wasteful. At the same time extracting useful products from spent nuclear fuel - a very costly operation, moreover, it leads to the formation of secondary waste. Most likely, this issue will be resolved after selecting a technology platform for the future of nuclear energy. It is now clear just what this technology will be a closed nuclear fuel cycle facilities. While still under R & D at the choice of the base unit. If the safety and competitiveness of fast reactors will be demonstrated experimentally, SNF, accumulated today, will be claimed and processed. Hence, efficient fuel processing technologies must be developed in parallel with the creation of a new platform technology of atomic energy. In any case, the fate of spent nuclear fuel will depend on the requirements of environmental safety and economic feasibility.
- But what about the irradiated fuel now? Process?
- Our country has accumulated just under 20 tons of spent nuclear fuel. Revise this volume with the use of existing facilities is very difficult. In addition, there is a part of the SFA, mainly early experimental types, which now can be attributed to non-reprocessible fuel. Therefore the main task today - to provide reliable and environmentally sound long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel and the development of appropriate innovative technologies. And it must be done without delay, considering that the rapid development of nuclear energy will increase the amount of spent nuclear fuel. A processing problem must be addressed systematically, creating new capacity.
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- Are there any reliable methods of storage?
- SNF, mainly located in the "wet" storage at nuclear power plants, it maintains its effective cooling and radiation protection. However, at long stay in water due to corrosion of materials are deteriorating as the irradiated fuel assemblies, and the pools themselves. Therefore, in recent years around the world begin the transition to a "dry" method of storing spent nuclear fuel accumulated, which will ensure the safe management of spent fuel assemblies for over 50 years.
In the world there are several proven technologies "dry" storage of spent fuel. This, above all, special containers for the storage of spent nuclear fuel and stationary store. The first requires minimal operating costs, while the latter are more costly to operate, but their construction takes less capital investment.
Russia has experience in developing transport of packagings for the transport of spent fuel. However, for the organization of container storage of spent nuclear fuel on such a technical basis needed a large capacity. Capital "dry" storage - a cell-type - is based now on the Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk. Entering its first stage would solve the overcrowding problem-station pools at nuclear power plants with RBMK-1000. In addition to all SFA such units will be posted here and build VVER-1000 reactors.
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- Now start auctioning off the nuclear industry. Secure a transfer of nuclear facilities and material in private hands?
- I think there is no risk. Change of ownership does not avoid the responsibility. Especially because the nuclear industry, because of the strategic and socio-political significance can not be privatized in the traditional sense. That is why 100% of OAO "Atomic Energy Power" is in federal ownership. Moreover, according to recently published introduction to the law of property complexes in the authorized capital of OAO "Atomic Energy Power" can not be otherwise than as directed by the President. And he - Supreme Commander and he knows that could harm the security and what not.
The state remains the main guarantor of security in the use of nuclear technology and radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. It must establish and maintain a coherent national legal system, clearly regulating the entire activity in this area. Necessary to determine national policies and strategies of SNF, consolidate the legislative framework for the necessary resources - infrastructure, modern technology, skilled staff - and most importantly, sufficient long-term funding, including in the distant future.
Authorities are also responsible for the fact that Russia has had all the organization needed to address the problem of spent nuclear fuel - and control structures and businesses in a timely and safe flying operations: preparation of SFA, their transportation, long-term storage and subsequent reprocessing or disposal. A lot depends on science and innovative technologies. Their development - is also taking care of the state.
- And how to overcome the contradiction of public and private?
- Need an organization of public-private partnership. This is a fairly complex set of contractual relationships between customers, investors, suppliers, regulators and authorities at various levels. The responsibility and authority of all parties should be strictly regulated by law.
The world was formed a few basic models of cooperation between state and business. This variety of contracts, leasing relations, as well as a concession. Abroad, the latest model is often used in the implementation of large, capital-intensive projects. Concessions are long-lasting, allowing for strategic planning, give business greater freedom in making decisions. Nevertheless, the state remains sufficiently leverage, as well as the right to dispose of their property.
And in order to establish long term relationships with business, government should ensure transparent and efficient allocation of orders, determine the appropriate safeguards and ensure an enabling environment for business.
- Private businesses will be able to engage in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel?
- I think, is not everywhere and always. It's a complicated question, especially considering that in the more secure areas of expertise we have is small. Safety of waste management should be guaranteed for hundreds of years ahead, and ensure that it can only state structures. However, this does not exclude private commercial activity at different stages of the final stage of NFC. SFA training at nuclear power plants, their transportation, and even long-term storage can trust commercial entities - of course, subject to certain conditions which have yet to substantiate it. Should examine foreign experience, because in many countries, nuclear power plants are privately owned. Hence, the SNF on them - this is the procedure of interaction between society, state and individual, aimed at ensuring safety. The key point in this area - the culture of security. Is very important to train specialists who can create technological systems for the SNF and to ensure their operation to ensure a safe and cost effective. Our Institute is engaged in this, but before the final results far.
To finance the newly formed SNF can create a special fund, which will flock to funds allocated by the organizations operating nuclear plants. Either fully assume funding for the state budget, setting a special levy on these organizations.
- Who should fund the treatment of irradiated fuel?
- The state has a direct financial responsibility for the accumulation of spent nuclear fuel. After all the means necessary for the treatment of irradiated fuel, were not on time reserved for budget planning and the creation of most nuclear installations was carried out for public funds. Dealing with the newly formed SNF can be financed in two ways. Or create a special fund, as is customary throughout the world will flock to funds allocated by the NPP and other organizations operating a nuclear installation. Either fully assume funding for the state budget, setting a special levy on these organizations. Of course, the cost of SNF will increase the cost of production of nuclear energy.
Society has to pay for the kilowatt-hours used, and the price of this depends on the technological perfection of all stages of fuel cycle from mining uranium ore to disposal of waste. By the way, if we compare the NFC with a coal fuel cycle is not yet known for any of these societies will be forced to pay more in terms of kilowatt-hours received. Hence, today you must select the most cost-effective model for long term storage of spent nuclear fuel, to work on the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This will ensure that the society in energy resources for hundreds of years into the future while maintaining a level of security.
Alexander Putilov Chairman of the NCC Center for Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Rosatom CEO VNIINM
One of the highlights of this year for the All-Russian Research Institute of Inorganic Materials. Bochvar (VNIINM) was the appointment of the Order of Rosatom on July 31, 2007
In October 2007, the Office of the secretariat of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and Huanta Rosatom prepared, agreed and submitted for presentation to the Government of the Russian Federation proposals Rosatom as part program developed by nanotechnology development until the year 2015 with an estimated volume of financing of about 32 billion rubles. and the participation of 117 enterprises, including: from Rosatom - 28, from the Russian Ministry - 13; of Sciences - 18; Other - 58.
This new section, submitted to the Programme, was developed based on examination of target indicators and targets, monitoring results of the Program, its activities and conditions for participation in these artists developed the Bureau of the Secretariat.
In December 2006, the Center for Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Rosatom was first presented to a joint exposition at the 3rd specialized exhibition of nanotechnology and materials - NTMEH-2006, and its participating organizations (Federal State Unitary Enterprise ARRICT, VNIINM, Federal State Unitary Enterprise PEI, FGUP SNPO Eleron ) awarded honorary diplomas.
Major exhibition of the Center of nanotechnology and nanomaterials was presented at Rosatom September 28, 2007 in honor of Day of Nuclear Worker.
7 - 9 November 2007 VNIINM and Center for Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Rosatom conducts in the Russian Ministry of exhibition-presentation of Rosatom "Functional materials for energy and that same month, participating in the conference" Materials of Nuclear Technology "pendulum-2007.
Government of the Russian Federation dated August 2, 2007
The Program in VNIINM in 2007 - 2010 gg provided and have already mastered a significant capital investment (1.2 billion rubles., including the year 2007 - 223.5 million rubles. part of the extracurricular FIAP) for the establishment of the Complex for the production of pilot lots of functionality and design of nanomaterials and products on their basis for the implementation of the new generation nuclear power technologies, which will be based mainly on research and development of technologies for various bulk nanostructured materials.
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